Textile Industry – India

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Earlier tradition way to produce textile in textile industry was hand spinning and handloom weaving. Later British introduced power looms in India to produce textiles.

Cotton Textile industry

In 2011, cotton and man made fibre textile industry were about 1946 in India. Out of these 80% belongs to private sector and 20% belong to public and cooperative sector. However, in world trade of cotton yarn, India constitutes one fourth of the total share. Also, the readymade garments export is just 4 percent of total world’s trade. Moreover, India is second largest country in terms of capacity of spindles. It mainly contains 43.33 million spindles.

  • Dependency of location for cotton textile industry:
    Earlier, cotton textile industries were located in cotton growing areas of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Location of textile industry depends on factors like availability of raw cotton, market, transport, labour and moist environment.
  • Employment due to textile industry:
    This industry support farmers, provide employment to labourers. It also supports to different other industries like chemicals, dyes, warehouses, packaging and engineering works. Handspun khali provides employment to weavers of cottage industry.
  • Challenges before textile industry of India:
    Spinning work of cotton is mainly done in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Weaving show variation due to traditional skills and design of cotton, silk and embroidery. To produce high quality of fabric there is need of improved machines. Cotton produce in India is of high quality but still there is need to import fabric. Major reason is fragmented production units, poor machines, erratic power supply, etc.
  • Cotton markets:
    Products made out of indian cotton has huge demand in Japan, U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Africa



Jute Textile Industry

India is the second largest exporter of raw jute and jute products. Around 2010 to 2011 there are about 80 jute mills in India. Many of these are situated in West Bengal along the bank of river Hugli.

  • Employment due to jute textile industry:
    It provides employment to 3.7 lakh workers and 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers who cultivates jute and mesta.
  • Dependency of location for jute textile industry:
    Jute industries are mainly located in Hugli 98 km long and 3 km wide. Also, it has good jute producing areas. God transport network of railways, waterways, roadways. Presence of water is in abundance moreover, labours is cheap mostly from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Also due to provisions of facilities such as banking, insurance and export.
  • Threats and opportunities:
    Indian Jute industries is facing tough competition from synthetic product and also by jute products of other countries like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand. Moreover, internal demand is increasing as government made jute packaging mandatory. National jute policy was developed in 2005, to increase productivity, good quality, and good price for jute farmers
  • Jute Markets:
    Markets for Jute products are USA, Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, UK and Australia.

Keywords: Textile industry, Cotton, Jute

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