A black hole is one of the most mysterious and interesting topic in the universe. Everyone wants to know more about black hole. Even scientists are still doing research to explore the black hole. There are lots of facts and myths on black holes. So let’s explore the black hole and gain some knowledge on it.
What is black hole?
Black holes are the extremely dense objects in the space from which nothing can escape even no light can escape. So we can say that black hole is a place in space, from where even strong gravitational force can’t escape from it. One of the myths is a black hole is anything but empty space. But the truth is, it is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area. Such that a star which is ten times more bigger than the Sun squeezed into a sphere approximately the diameter of any metropolitan city. So the result is a gravitational field and not even light can escape from it. In the last few years, NASA has painted the picture of black holes, which are the most fascinating objects in space.The scientists can’t directly observe black holes with telescopes that detect x-rays, light, or other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
How black holes form?
In one sentence we can say that one star’s end is a black hole’s beginning. Most black holes are formed from the remnants of a large stars, which dies in the supernova explosion. Among it smaller stars become the dense neutron stars, which are not massive enough to trap the light. That’s the reason they can’t become a black hole. Theoretically it’s proven that if the total mass of the star is at least about three times the mass of the Sun, then no force can keep the star from collapsing under the influence of gravity. The Chandra and NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope later collected the data from the several event’s of afterglow. By gathering the observations, the astronomers concluded that the production of another black hole is a result of powerful explosions taking place due to the collision of black hole and a neutron star.
Size of black hole?
However the basic formation process of black holes is understood, but one mystery in the science of black holes is that they appear to exist on two radically different size scales. There are the countless black holes that are the rest of massive stars. Peppered throughout the Universe, these “stellar mass” black holes are generally 10 to 24 times as greater than the Sun. The astronomers and scientists spots the black whole when another star draws near enough to the black hole with some of the matter surrounding it to be cached by the black hole’s gravity by churning out the x-rays in the process. Most stellar black holes are next to impossible to detect. Judging of total black holes is much difficult. However, the scientists estimate that there are as many as ten million to a billion such black holes in the Milky Way alone.
On the other hand the giants black holes are known as Supermassive black holes. Which are millions to billions of times as massive than the Sun. Scientists believe that the supermassive black holes lie at the centre of virtually all large galaxies. Even in our own Milky Way. Scientists can detect black holes by watching for their effects on nearby stars and gas.
Historically, scientists have long believed that no mid-sized black holes exist in the galaxy. However, from the recent evidence from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Hubble, scientists are on the conclusion that mid-size black holes do exist. The formation of supermassive black holes is due to a chain reaction of collisions of stars with in the compact star clusters. Which gives results in the buildup of extremely massive stars. Following it after the collapsing to form intermediate-mass black holes. Star clusters then go down to the centre of the galaxy, where the black holes of intermediate black holes merge to form a supermassive black hole.
How many years does it take to make a black hole?
A stellar mass black holes can likely to form in seconds, after the collapse of a massive star. These small black holes can also be made through the merger of two dense stellar remnants called neutron stars. More mysterious is the formation of giant black holes found at the centers of galaxies. These “supermassive” black holes have weight, millions or billions of times the mass of the Sun. These types of black holes can take less than a billion years to reach a very large size. But till date it is unknown how long it takes them to form.
How does black holes work?
Black holes use the gravitational pulls to consume everything that closely passes by them. Black holes are capable to consume the light, gas, dust, and other objects in space. As the black hole pulls objects and light into its centre, it gains more size and mass. Black holes are formed from the exploding, burning and movement of dying stars. They tend to spin in space. When you see images of light and matter being pulled into a black hole, you will see the matter swirling around a black centre.
Where are the black holes found?
With naked eyes we can’t see the black whole. Scientists can only see the black holes by noticing light and objects pulled towards a single point. Scientists first notice the black hole’s gravity force before they notice the black hole. In our universe as per estimation there are millions of black holes. Among all black holes, supermassive black holes are different because they primarily exist at the centre of galaxies. Scientists estimate that almost all galaxies have a supermassive black hole at their centre. Even our galaxy also has one. The black hole at the centre of our milky way is known as Sagittarius. It is almost 27,000 light years away from the Earth.
Author – Sagar Wani is Business Head at LearnFatafat and has interest in current affairs.
Posted By – LearnFatafat