Introduction to Non conventional source of energy
Energy generated with help of sun, wind, animal waste, etc are called non conventional sources of energy. Solar energy, wind energy, biomass energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy are some examples of non conventional sources of energy. Major question is why do we need non conventional sources though we have conventional one? Conventional sources of energy like coal, petroleum are in limited quantity i.e. one day these will end. Also, conventional sources causes lot of pollution. Hence, non conventional source are more favourable over conventional sources because they cause very less pollution and can also be used for longer time.
Solar energy is non conventional source of energy. India comes in tropical region where, solar energy is available in plenty. Therefore, this solar energy can be converted to electricity using Photovoltaic Technology. Thus, increase in use of solar energy reduces use of conventional sources like firewood, cow dung cakes, etc. This also contributes in conservation of environment.
Wind energy is converted to electrical energy with the help of windmills. Tamil Nadu has large cluster of windmill located near Nagercoil to Madurai. Moreover, windmills are also seen in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and in Lakshadweep.
Biogas is non conventional source of energy. Particularly, organic waste like leaves, animal excreta are decomposed to produce biogas. Biogas is used as fuel. It is also called as gobar gas. Efficiency of biogas is higher than kerosene, charcoal, cow dung cakes, etc. Also, biogas plants are setup at municipal, cooperative and individual levels. It is used in rural areas for fuel thereby replacing conventional sources like firewood, charcoal, etc.
Gravitational pull of moon causes rise and fall water in sea resulting into high tide and low tide. If floodgate is constructed near narrow opening of sea, then the tidal energy can be converted to electrical energy with help of turbine, that should be placed at the openings. Particularly, such locations of tidal energy in India are Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Kachchh in western coast of Gujarat, Gangetic Delta in West Bengal.
In earth’s crust with increase in depth, temperature also, increases. Hot cracks inside the crust converts water into steam. This steam is used to rotate turbines, thereby, generating electricity. In India, two projects on geothermal energy are running in Parvati valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley, Ladakh.
Nuclear or Atomic energy
Nucleus of heavy atoms like Uranium is highly unstable. If a neutron is bombarded on such nucleus, this allows nucleus to break into two nucleus thereby producing large energy, which is used to generate electrical energy. Uranium and Thorium are found in Jharkhand and Rajasthan. Monazite sands of Kerala is rich in thorium.
Some nuclear power station in India are Tarapur Atomic Power Station (Maharashtra), Madras Atomic Power Station (Tamil Nadu), Kudankulam Atomic Power Project(Tamil Nadu), Narora Atomic Power Station (Uttar Pradesh), Kakrapar Atomic Power station(Gujarat), Kaiga Generating Station (Karnataka).
Keywords: Solar energy, Wind energy, Tidal energy, Geothermal energy, biogas, Atomic Energy, Nuclear energy. Conventional sources of energy