Reason for depletion of flora and fauna
Reason for depletion of flora and fauna are industrial economy and consumption of resources.
- Industrial economy: Due to the increasing demand of forest products like furniture, vegetables, grasses and other minerals from forest resources, there is depletion of flora and fauna.
- Consumption of resources: Resources are consumed more by rich people than by poor people this is also a reason of depletion.
Factors for depletion of flora and fauna
- Human: Wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, fuel, fodder results in depletion of flora. Hunting and poaching of wildlife, overexploitation, environmental pollution are some factors which leads to the depletion of fauna.
- Development of transport: Expansion of railways, commercial and scientific forestry leads to depletion of indian forest
- Agricultural expansion: In India, in years between 1951 and 1980, 26,200 sq. km of forest land was converted into agricultural land.
- Deforestation: It is process of cutting down of trees from for agriculture, transportation and other such purposes. Depletion of flora and fauna occurs due to deforestation. For example: Deforestation of tribal belts in north eastern and central india due to shifting cultivation had lead to depletion of flora and fauna of that region.
- Large scale development projects: Since, 1951 over 5000 sq km of forest was cleared for river valley projects. Clearing of forests is still continuing with the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh.
- Mining: Mining process causes into deforestation. The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is threatened by mining. It has disturbed the natural habitat of many species and blocked migration routes of many other species like great Indian elephant.
- Grazing of animals: Grazing of animals in forests destroys the plants leading to depletion of forests.
- Overconsumption: Unequal access of resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well being leads to depletion of flora and fauna.
- Overpopulation: Continuous increase in population generates the need of shelter, earnings, etc. For this forest land is utilised for construction of buildings and industries. Hence, it causes environmental destruction.
Results of depletion of flora and fauna
- Forest dependent communities which depends on forest are becoming poor due to destruction of forest. Destruction of forest involves factors like timber, fuelwood, grazing of animals, medicinal plants, forest based agriculture for income generation. For example, rural areas lack electricity and gas for cooking hence, people in rural areas use firewood for generating fire. Due to destruction of forests there is less availability of fuelwood. Timber wood is used in construction of houses, there is less availability of timber in forest. This affects communities income generation.
- Due to depletion of resources, people who collect fuel, fodder and other basic need had to walk more than 10 km to collect these resources.
- The degradation results in drought, deforestation and floods resulting into poverty.
Keywords: Factors of depletion of flora and fauna, Flora and fauna in India.