Sustainable Management of Natural Resources SSLC Science Notes

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  • Natural Resources : Forest, wildlife, water, coal and petroleum are some of natural resources. Natural resources are used by humans for various developments.
  • Need for Resource management : Continuous use of these resources may lead to extinction, thus, there is need for conservation of these resources. This can be done by proper management of resources. Resource management ensures equal distribution of resources, proper disposal of waste and for preserving biodiversity.  
  • Ways to conserve and manage resources :   
    • Global level measures : National and International rules and regulations to protect natural resources.
    • Three R’s to save Environment :
      1. Reduction : Reduced use of natural resources may prevent them from extinction. E.g. less use of electricity can save water,coal, petroleum.
      2. Recycling : use of materials that can be recycled so that it can be used again. E.g plastic, paper, glass, etc.
      3. Reuse : Reuse of material is better way than that of recycling. E.g. plastic bottles can be reused instead of throwing them.   
    • Sustainable Development : Development that encourages growth which take care of present human need as well as future generation needs.
    • Awareness : All methods are possible only if each and every human takes up responsibility of conservation of natural resources.
  • Forests and Wildlife : Stakeholders
  • People living in and around forest : People living in or around forest gather essential things like firewood, leaves for covering roof top, etc. But they also conserve these resources by removing dry branches and replenishing them.
    • Forest Department : Before independence, British cut forest and turned them to agricultural land due to which environment and tribal people suffered. After independence, forest management were passed in the hands of forest departments. They allowed cultivation of commercial plants like pine, teak, etc. such change affects biodiversity in forest and suffering of tribal people.
    • Industrialists : Industrialist look forest as huge source of raw material and so cut tree to large extent.
    • Wildlife and Nature enthusiast : These peoples work for forest welfare and conservation.     
  • Regulation helpful in conservation of forest or not? : Regulations never benefitted in conservation of forests
  • Sustainable management of forest :
    • Management of resources with equal priority for social, economic and environmental goals.
    • Chipko Andolan : This movement took place first in forest near village Reni in himalayas, where womens of village hugged trees to oppose cutting of trees in forest. Due to this social movement, government was forced to withdraw the contract of cutting trees.  
    • Arbari Forests : Due to deforestation Arbari Forests became worthless. With help of forest officials and villagers it became possible to recover forest. Later value of forest increased to 12.5 crores.
    • Water : Rainfall is major source for water in India. As rain occurs only in monsoon, there is need to preserve rainwater for rest of year. This done by preservation of water in dams, canals, etc.
    • Dams : Barriers built across rivers.
      • Advantages : Water from dams is useful in agriculture, fishing, electricity and drinking water.
      • Disadvantages :
        1. Water from dams is not adequately distributed among people.
        2. Public money is swallowed by the corrupt officers giving poor development benefits.
        3. Can cause deforestation for building dams.   
    • Water harvesting :
      • Collecting rainwater for effective use is water harvesting. This can be done by managing watersheds.
      • Water harvesting system : It can be made by digging small pits and lakes, building small earthen dams, constructed dykes, sand and limestone reservoirs, rooftop water collecting systems.  
      • Ancient and new methods of water harvesting across india :
        1. Khadins,tanks and nadis In Rajasthan
        2. Bandharas & tals in Maharashtra
        3. Bundhis, in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
        4. Ponds in Jammu
        5. Eris in Tamil Nadu
        6. Surangams in kerala
        7. Kattas in Karnataka
        8. Building earthen embankments and check dams to route water into larger storages.
    • Coal and Petroleum :
      • Need for management :
        1. Coal and petroleum are exhaustible sources of energy. If they are continuously used they will end one day. Reports say that these fuels are in stock of just 40 years. Hence, it is necessary to conserve them.
        2. Combustion of fossil fuel produces harmful gases causing pollution. Carbon dioxide released in atmosphere causes increase in temperature resulting into global warming.
      • Management of coal and petroleum :
        1. Taking bus instead of personal vehicle.
        2. Saving electricity by using energy saving bulbs at home.
        3. Use of stairs instead of lifts and many more.
        4. Research of such engines which will be energy efficient and cause no pollution.

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